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Captive breeding programs have been used to save several endangered birds from extinction. The existence of a considerable number of successful releases of captive-born birds into the wild demonstrated that it is possible to establish a species in an area of its historical range (reintroduction) and to reinforce an existing wild population that was in decline (restocking). Most reintroduction programs are complicated and expensive, involving a multi-disciplinary approach to problem solving. One of the major problems of many current ex-situ conservation programs is the low fertility rate of the endangered species in captivity. In the current review, some research programs on assisted bird reproduction are introduced, and new diagnostic and therapeutic methods for avian infertility are described.
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