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The authors studied for six years the effects of tree thinning and of undergrowth control in a coastal pinewood of Central Italy. The changes induced by cultivation activities have caused a significant contraction of richness abundance and diversity, not counterbalanced after 4 years from interventions. The species mostly affected are: Hoopoe, Upupa epops, Great Spotted Woodpecker, Dendrocopos major, Little Spotted Woodpecker, Dendrocopos minor, Short-toed Tree Creeper, Certhia brachydactyla, Firecrest, Regulus ignicapillus, and some species of Passeriformes which nest in the undergrowth vegetation.
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