Guidelines for Authors

Manuscript will be carefully scrutinized for evidence of plagiarism, duplication and data manipulation; in particular, images will be carefully examined for any indication of intentional improper modification.

Any suspected misconduct ends up with a quick rejection and is then reported to the US Office of Research Integrity.

Ensure that your work is written in correct English before submission. Professional copyediting can help authors improve the presentation of their work and increase its chances of being taken on by a publisher. In case you feel that your manuscript would benefit from a professional a professional English language copyediting checking language grammar and style, you can find a reliable revision service at:

The Corresponding Author must submit the manuscript online-only through our Manuscript Submission System.

Authors are kindly invited to suggest potential reviewers (names, affilitations and email addresses) for their manuscript, if they wish.

Manuscript preparation

The scientific journal NHS Atti della Società italiana di Scienze naturali e del Museo civico di Storia naturale in Milano was founded in 1856 to publish original research in natural sciences. The Editorial Board will not accept papers that do not meet the following guidelines.

All manuscripts must be submitted online at http://sisn.pagepress.org/index.php/nhs. Contributions MUST be preferably written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are strongly recommended to have their manuscript checked by a language editing service. Manuscripts should be saved and submitted as a single WORD file containing the full paper, references, tables and figures captions. Tables and figures should be submitted as Supplementary Files. All the illustrations are considered as figures and must be cited into the main text. In case of acceptance, high resolution images (.TIFF or .JPG format) must be provided for publication. The first page of each manuscript should include the names, initials and surnames of the Author(s); their full affiliation and postal address (including e-mail), and the title of the paper.

Articles should be normally divided into: Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, and References. The text must be preceded by an English abstract, that must be analytically informative. Kew words (max 7) must be provided.

Short Communications are papers with a simple layout, containing limited data (no more than two figures or tables) and a small number of citations. They should be limited to 2000 words of text (figure captions, table headings and reference lists are additional to this limit).

Scientific names common names of organisms should always be accompanied, when first cited, by their complete scientific name in italics (genus, species). All papers must conform to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ed. IV, 1999) and subsequent updating (http://iczn.org/code); the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) (http://www.iapt-taxon.org/nomen/main.php) and for standard abbreviations follow the Intarnational Plant Names Index (http://www.ipni.org/index.html). When first mentioned, a plant or animal should include the full scientific name and the author of the zoological name unabbreviated, except for Linnaeus (L.) and Fabricius (F.).

Geographical names should follow the Times World Atlases style (http://www.timesatlas.com/Pages/default.aspx).

Remarks must be preferably avoided; when used, they should be presented at the end of the text and identified by Arab numerals in superscript.

References

References must be formatted according to the following examples:

  • Biancardi C.M., Rigo V., Azzolini S. & Gnoli C., 2014 – Eurasian badger (Meles meles) habitat and sett site selection in the northern Apennines. Natural History Sciences, Milano, 1 (1): 41-48. doi: 10.4081/nhs.2014.56
  • Brandbyge J., 1993 – Polygonaceae. In: The families and genera of vascular plants. Flowering plants. Dicotyledons. Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid families. Kubitzki K., Rohwer J. G. & Bittrich V. (eds.). Springer, Berlin, 2: 531-544
  • Fraser N.C. & Rieppel O., 2006 – A new protorosaur (Diapsida) from the Upper Buntsandstein of the Black Forest, Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26 (4): 866-871
  • Thiers B., 2014 onwards – Index herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden. <http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/> (retrieved on December 2014).

Please list papers by more than two authors, but with the same first author, by year sequence and alphabetically within each year.

Citation of authors in the text should appear in the form: (Polaszek, 1996). Authors should be cited in chronological order as: (Blackman et al., 1994; Roberts & Kumar, 1995).

Tables and figures

The presentation of tables and figures must always follow the same order in which they are presented in the main text. All references to tables and figures should specify the relevant Arabic identification numbers. The legends of tables and figures should be informative and concise without duplicating information presented within the body of the text. Symbols and abbreviations used in figures/tables can be defined in the figure/table caption or within the figure itself.

Peer-review policy

All manuscripts submitted to our journal are critically assessed by external and/or in-house experts in accordance with the principles of peer review (http://www.icmje.org/#peer), which is fundamental to the scientific publication process and the dissemination of sound science. Each paper is first assigned by the Editors to an appropriate Associate Editor who has knowledge of the field discussed in the manuscript. The first step of manuscript selection takes place entirely in-house and has two major objectives: i) to establish the article appropriateness for our journals readership; ii) to define the manuscript priority ranking relative to other manuscripts under consideration, since the number of papers that the journal receives is much greater than it can publish. If a manuscript does not receive a sufficiently high priority score to warrant publication, the editors will proceed to a quick rejection. The remaining articles are reviewed by at least two different external referees (second step or classical peer review). Manuscripts should be prepared according to the Uniform Requirements established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (http://www.icmje.org/#prepare).

Authorship and Contributorship
All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship according to the ICMJE criteria. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should only be based on substantial contributions to: i) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data, and to ii) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and on iii) final approval of the version to be published; and iv) agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is not sufficient for authorship. Authors should provide a brief description of their individual contributions. Those who do not meet all four criteria should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged. Those whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged individually or together as a group under a single heading. Authors can find detailed information on the Publisher's web site.

Obligation to Register Clinical Trials 
The ICMJE believes that it is important to foster a comprehensive, publicly available database of clinical trials. The ICMJE defines a clinical trial as any research project that prospectively assigns human subjects to intervention or concurrent comparison or control groups to study the cause-and-effect relationship between a medical intervention and a health outcome. Medical interventions include drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, etc. Our journals require, as a condition of consideration for publication, registration in a public trials registry. The journal considers a trial for publication only if it has been registered before the enrollment of the first patient. The journal does not advocate one particular registry, but requires authors to register their trial in a registry that meets several criteria. The registry must be accessible to the public at no charge. It must be open to all prospective registrants and managed by a non-profit organization. There must be a mechanism to ensure the validity of the registration data, and the registry should be electronically searchable. An acceptable registry must include a minimum of data elements (http://www.icmje.org/about-icmje/faqs/clinical-trials-registration/). For example, ClinicalTrials.gov (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov), sponsored by the United States National Library of Medicine, meets these requirements.

Protection of Human Subjects and Animals in Research
When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2013. If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. An Informed Consent statement is always required from patients involved in any experiments. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.  Further guidance on animal research ethics is available from the World Medical Association (2016 revision). When reporting experiments on ecosystems involving non-native species, Authors are bound to ensure compliance with the institutional and national guide for the preservation of native biodiversity.