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Elymus s. l. is a critical topic on which only a little light has begun to be made regarding phylogenetic reticulation, genome evolution and consistency of genera. In Italy, Elymus s. l. officially includes ten species (nine native, one alien) and some well-established and widespread hybrids generally not treated as little or nothing is known of them. In this paper fourteen species (with two subspecies) and six hybrids are taken into account and the following seven new combinations are proposed: Thinopyrum acutum (DC.) Banfi, Thinopyrum corsicum (Hack.) Banfi, Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & Dewey subsp. pouzolzii (Godr.) Banfi, Thinopyrum obtusiflorum (DC.) Banfi, Thinopyrum ×duvalii (Loret) Banfi, ×Thinoelymus drucei (Stace) Banfi, ×Thinoelymus mucronatus (Opiz) Banfi. Some observations are provided for each subject and a key to species, subspecies and hybrids is made available.