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The local forms of Zootecus (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Subulinidae) of Pakistan: an archaeomalacological case study

Alberto Girod, Antonio Balzarini
  • Antonio Balzarini
    Besnate, Italy


In the past, several Asian subspecies and local forms of Zootecus have been described and some of them can be linked back to Zootecus insularis. Their collecting sites, shell shapes, dimensions and number of whorls have been listed in the past. In recent years, collections, observations and biometrics of dead shells have been carried out in five sites in Pakistan, in both Balochistan and Sindh, The samples have quite different dating; two of them come from archaeological excavations. The biometrics indicate that different shell shapes are locally present among the empty shells accumulated over the years; in the Siranda Lake they have floated from different of areas. A comparison between the Zootecus shells cited in the past literature and the shells from the five sites shows, that in these mounds of shells a variety of shapes exists, including those known as Zootecus agrensis, Z. chion, Z. gracilor minor, Z. polygyratus and Z. pullus. Given the ample polymorphism present in every sample, it is difficult to ascribe the specimens of Siranda Lake to one of the above taxa.


land snail, Zootecus, Pakistan, morphs, biometrics.

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Submitted: 2016-06-03 09:16:16
Published: 2017-04-07 15:47:15
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